Solar street light structure
The solar street light consists of the following components: solar panels, solar controllers, battery packs, light sources, poles, and fixture housings.
1. Solar panels
Solar panels are a core part of solar streetlights. Its role is to convert the sun’s radiation capacity into electrical energy or send it to the battery for storage. Solar panels are commonly used in three types: monocrystalline silicon solar panels, polycrystalline silicon solar panels, and amorphous silicon solar panels. Polysilicon solar panels are used in the eastern and western regions where sunlight is abundant. Because the polycrystalline silicon solar panels are simple in the production process, the price is lower than that of monocrystalline silicon solar panels. In the southern regions where there are many rainy days and insufficient sunshine, monocrystalline silicon solar panels are used because the performance parameters of monocrystalline silicon solar panels are relatively stable. Amorphous silicon solar panels are better in the case of insufficient outdoor sunlight because amorphous silicon solar panels require relatively low solar lighting conditions.
2. solar controller
A good performance charging and discharging controller is essential for solar street lights. In order to extend the service life of the battery, its charging and discharging conditions must be limited to prevent overcharging and deep charging of the battery. In places with large temperature differences, qualified controllers should also have temperature compensation. At the same time, the solar controller should have the street light control function, with light quantity control and time control function, and should have the function of automatic cutting and controlling load at night, which is convenient for extending the working time of the street lamp in rainy days.
3. battery packs
Since the input energy of the solar photovoltaic system is extremely unstable, it is generally necessary to configure the battery system to work. The choice of battery capacity generally follows the following principles: First, the energy of the daytime solar cell module is stored as much as possible while meeting the nighttime illumination, and at the same time, it is also necessary to store the electric energy required for the nighttime illumination of the continuous rainy day. If the battery capacity is too small, it can not meet the needs of night lighting. The battery is too large. On the one hand, the battery is always in a deficient state, which affects the battery life and causes waste. The battery should match the solar cell and the electrical load (street light). A simple way to determine the relationship between them. The solar cell power must be more than 4 times higher than the load power for the system to work properly. The voltage of the solar cell should exceed 20~30% of the working voltage of the battery to ensure normal negative charge to the battery. The battery capacity must be more than 6 times higher than the daily load of the load.
4. the light source
Whether the quality of solar street lights is stable depends on the quality of the components and the process. What kind of light source is used for solar street lamps is an important indicator of whether solar street lamps can be used normally. Generally, solar street lamps use low-voltage energy-saving lamps, low-pressure sodium lamps, electrodeless lamps, and LED light sources.
5. light pole and lamp housing
The height of the pole should be determined according to the width of the road, the spacing of the luminaires, and the illuminance standard of the road. According to the collection of many foreign solar light materials, most of the lighting and heat saving is selected. Most of them choose energy saving. The appearance requirements of the lamps are not high, so it is relatively practical.